Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods and Anthropometric Status of Adults in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State Nigeria

Author
A.D. Oguizu, O.S. Nweze
Keywords
Ultra-Processed Foods; Adults; Anthropometric Status; Abia State; Nigeria.
Abstract
Background: Ultra-processed foods are industrially formulated food products manufactured largely by food companies packaged in such a way to make them intensely palatable, have long shelf stability and eliminate the need for culinary preparations.
Objective: This study assessed the consumption of ultra-processed foods and anthropometric status of adults aged (20-49 years) in Ikwuano Local Government Area Abia State, Nigeria.
Methods: The study was a cross sectional survey of 440 adults randomly selected for the study. A well-structured and validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the socio-economic and demographic characteristics, the consumption of ultra-processed foods, the dietary pattern and anthropometric status of the respondents. The questionnaires were coded and entered into computer using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Chi-square analysis was used to assess the relationship between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and anthropometric status of the respondents.
Results: More than half of the respondents (67.0%) were males while 33.0% were females. Majority of the adults (62.3%) were between the ages of 26 and 32 years. Majority of the respondents (80.0%) were Christian, about 18.0% were traditionalist, and more than half of the respondents (82.2%) were Igbo. More than half of the respondents (63.6%) had tertiary education. About a quarter of the respondents (48.0%) were traders/business persons, 27.7% were civil/public servant, 8.2% were farmers and 2.5% were unemployed. About a quarter of the respondents (46.8%) earned less than ₦30,000 a month. only a few of the respondents (3.4%) earned above ₦91,000 per month. One third of the respondents consumed sweets, candies, soft drinks, pizza, burger, pasta, canned vegetables and sweetened breakfast cereals daily. About half of the respondents (53.0%) who were overweight consumed soft drinks daily. A total of 36.3% of the respondents were overweight, while 20% were obese. The chi-square analysis showed there was a significant association (p<0.000) between consumption of cake, pizza, burger and BMI of the respondents. Obesity was higher amongst male adults than female adults.
Conclusion: One third of the respondents were overweight, while about 20% were obese. There is need to focus on educating the community on the need to consume home-made dishes from fresh indigenous foods.
References
[1] Allemandi L, Castronuovo L, Tiscornia M.V. Food advertising on Argentinean television: are ultra-processed foods in the lead? Public Health Nutrition, 2018. 21(1): 238 -246.
[2] Baker P, Friel S. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia. Global Health, 2016. 12(1): 80.
[3] Baraldi, L.G., Martinez Steele, E., Canella, D.S., Monteiro, C.A. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and associated socio-demographic factors in the USA between 2007 and 2012: Evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study, 2014.
[4] Ismene, Zarifis. “Human Rights Brief: Rights of Religious Minorities in Nigeria”.2002. Archived from the original on 2009-12-23. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
[5] Louzada, M.L., Baraldi, L.G. and Steele, E.M. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adults. Preventive Medicine, 2015. 81:9 -15.
[6] Monteiro C.A, Levy R.B, Claro R.M. Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: evidence from Brazil, Public Health Nutrition, 2011. 14: 5–13.
[7] Monteiro CA, Cannon G, Moubarac J-C. Dietary guidelines to nourish humanity and the planet in the twenty-first century. A blueprint from Brazil. Public Health Nutrition, 2015. 18: 2311–2322.
[8] Monteiro CA, Moubarac JC, Cannon G. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obesity Review, 2013. 14: 21-28.
[9] Monteiro CA, Moubarac JC, Levy RB. Household availability of ultra-processed foods and obesity in nineteen European countries. Public Health Nutrition, 2018. 21(1): 18-26.
[10] Moodie R, Stuckler D, Monteiro CA. Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries. Non-communicable Diseases Series 4. Lancet, 2013. 381: 670–679.
[11] Moubarac JC, Martins AP, Claro RM, Levy RB, Cannon G, Monteiro CA. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from Canada. Public Health Nutrition, 2013.16: 2240–2248.
[12] National Bureau of Statistics. Statistical New: Gender and social-economic data: the NBS publication, 2015 8: 196-203.
[13] Norimah A.K, Safiah M, Jamal K, Haslinda S, Zuhaida H, Rohida S, Fatimah S, Norazlin S, Poh B.K, Kandiah M and Zalilah M.S. Food consumption patterns: findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 2018. 14(1): 25-39.
[14] World Health Organization (WHO). Independent High Level Commission on NCDs. 2018. Available at:https://www.who. int/ncds/governance/high-level-commission/en/, Accessed on 11/11/2019.
[15] World Health Organization (WHO). Pacific islanders pay heavy price for abandoning their traditional diets. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2010. 88(7): 484–485. http://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.10.010710.
[16] Yamane, T. Statistics: an introductory analysis, 3rd edition. New York. 1973: Harper and Row.

Received : 19 April 2022
Accepted : 25 June 2022
Published : 28 June 2022
DOI: 10.30726/esij/v9.i2.2022.92004

Download “Consumption-of-Ultra-Processed-Foods.pdf” Consumption-of-Ultra-Processed-Foods.pdf – Downloaded 45 times – 442 KB