Iodine Status of School Age Children 6-12 Years in Umuahia South LGA of Abia State, Nigeria

A.D. Oguizu, J.O. Nwagwu
School Age Children; Iodine Status; Abia State; Nigeria.
Background: Iodine deficiency disorders have continued to be a significant health problem in some Nigerian communities despite universal salt iodization.
Objective: This study was designed to assess the iodine status of school age children (6-12 years) in Umuahia South LGA of Abia State, Nigeria.
Methods: A total of 414 school children were studied. Urine samples were obtained from 84 school children, 30 males and 54 females. The background and socio-economic information, food habit and dietary intake of the respondents were determined using validated questionnaires. Urinary iodine concentration analysis, using Sandell-Kolthoff reaction was used to determine the iodine status of the children. Chi-square was used to determine the relationship between urinary iodine status of the children and the socio-economic characteristics of their parents.
Results: More than half (58.7%) of the children were females while 40.5% were males. About a quarter of the children (40.1%) were 9-10 years, 23.4% were 11-12 years while 36.5% were 6-8 years. Most of the respondents (72.2%) were aware of iodized salt; 14.3% heard about iodized salt from friends, 41.8% heard from the media while 13% heard about iodized salt from the market. Majority of the respondents (94.4%) claimed they consume iodized salt while 4.9% said they use salts that were measured in cups which was not iodized salt. The study revealed that 54.3% of the school children had optimal iodine status while 35.7% had mild iodine deficiency which was higher in males (46.7%) than in females (29.6%). About 5.6% of the respondents had grade 1 goiter. There was a significant association (p< 0.05) between urinary iodine status of the school children and educational status of their fathers’, mothers’, parents’ occupation and income level of fathers.
Conclusion: Nutrition education should be aimed at mothers, caregivers, and school children to promote consumption of iodine rich foods.
[1] Biswas, A.B., Chakraborty, I., Das, D.K. and Roy, R.N. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders in Purulia district, West Bengal, India. Journal Tropical Pediatric, 2006. 52: 288-92.
[2] Fernando, S., Balasuriya, K.B., Herath, S.and Katugampola, M.A. Endemic goiter in Sri Lanka. In. C.B.Dissanayake, L.Gunatilaka, (Eds); some aspects of the environment of Sri Lanka. Colombo: Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007. 46-64
[3] Hetzel, H.S. and Maberly, G.F. Trace elements in human and animal nutrition. Academic Press International council London, 2006. 139-197.
[4] Joshi, A.B., Banjara, M.R., Bhatta, L.R., Rikimaru, T. and Jimba, M. Assessment of IDD problem by estimation of urinary iodine among school children. Nutrition Medical Clinical Journal, 2006. 89: 111-114.
[5] Nigeria demographic and health survey. National Population Commission Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria. ICF International Rockville, Maryland, USA. Nigeria, 2013. 18-32.
[6] Oguizu A.D. and Alozie P.C. Iodine status and academic performance of school age children (6-12 years) in Umuahia North local government area, Abia State Nigeria. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2018. 106-110.
[7] Pedersen, I.B, Laurberg, P., Knudsen, N., et al. An increased incidence of overt hypothyroidism after iodine fortification of salt in Denmark: a prospective population study. Journal Clinical Endocrinological Metabolism, 2007. 92:3122–27.
[8] WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. Assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Monitoring their Elimination: A Guide for Program Managers, 3rd ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.
[9] Winn T, Naing L, Rusli BN. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Arch. Orofacial Sci., 2006. 1:9-14.
[10] World Health Organization/International Council for the Control of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders/United Nations Children’s Fund (WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF). Assessment of the iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. 3rd Edition Geneva: World Health Organization, 2007.
[11] Zimmermann, M.B., Connolly, K., Bozo, M., Bridson, J., Rohner, F., and Grimci, L. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in iodine-deficient school children in Albania: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study. American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 2006. 83:108-114.

Received : 07 April 2021
Accepted : 22 May 2021
Published : 27 May 2021
DOI: 10.30726/esij/v8.i2.2021.82014

Download “Iodine Status of School Age Children - Nigeria” Iodine-Status-of-School-Age-Children-Nigeria.pdf – Downloaded 8 times – 228 KB