Reconciliation of Cultural Change and Economic Achievements of Descendants of Indian Indentured Labourers in Fiji

Author
Dr. Suesh Kumar Pandey
Keywords
Culture Change; Indentured Labourers; Migration; Dowry; Caste System; Economic Achievements
Abstract
The research paper aims at the indagation of the cultural changes for descendants of Indian indentured labourers in Fiji as comparison to Indians. It explores the aspects of living, traditional values, and workforce participation in both jurisdictions. It also enhances the different attributes of Indian culture en casting the cultural realm and the practices been reshaped in Fiji. The paper intends to systemically explain the differences between cultural and traditional characteristics of India’s culture and Indo-Fijian culture. The inclination of lifestyle towards westernization and modernization will also be highlighted which amplifies the aspect of change to time and necessities. The research methodology adopted by the researchers is mixed-method and the data collection was made through the use of a questionnaire. Conclusively, the study done commutates the thorough use of questionnaires. Conclusively, the study done commutates the shift in cultural aspects and its reorientation and traditional values among Indo-Fijian living in Fiji.
References
[1] Albert, I. and Trommsdorff, G. (2014) ‘The role of culture in social development over the life span: an interpersonal relations approach’. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Vol 6, No. 2 [online] https://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? article =1057&context=orpc (accessed 9 September 2019).
[2] An Overview of History of Indenture. [online] http://www.aapravasighat.org/English/Resources%20Research/Documents/ History%20of%20Indenture.pdf. (accessed 17January 2007).
[3] Ansari, M. (2018) ‘Knowledge Is The Most Powerful Weapon’ [online] 9 April 2018 https://medium.com/@mahekam_ansari/k nowledge-is-the-most-powerful-weapon-683fd387938f. (accessed 11 September 2019).
[4] Arya Samaj in Fiji. (n.d.) [online] https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ Arya_Samaj_in_Fiji. (accessed 17 September 2019).
[5] Bagde, K. S., Epple, D. and Taylor, L. (2016) ‘Does Affirmative Action Work? Caste, Gender, College Quality, and Academic Success in India’, American Economic Review, Vol.106 No. 6, pp.1495–1521.
[6] Berdford, R. (1989) ‘Out of Fiji…a perspective on migration after the coups’, Pacific Viewpoint, Vol.30 No.2,pp.142–153.
[7] Bhagonandam, S.D. and Rao, D. S.(2015) ‘A study on socio cultural factors influencing Indian Entrepreneurship: a critical examination’,International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 10, No. 23, pp.43807–43812.
[8] Bhagwati Saran Singh v. Parmeshwari Nandar Singh, (1944) ILR All 518.
[9] Bharadwaj, A. (2018) ‘Indian culture evolves through time only to be caught in the regressive portrayal in cinema’. [online] 7 February. https://qrius.com/indian-culture-evolves-time-caught-regressive-portrayal-cinema/. (accessed 12 July 2019).
[10] Biswas, C.S. (2016) ‘Spousal violence against working women in India’,Journal of Family Violence, Vol. 32 No. 1 [online] https:// search.proquest.com/ docview/ 1857261435/ fulltextPDF/ 515B27058C5345CCPQ/ 13?accountid=134156 (accessed 3 August 2018).
[11] Bryson, J.R. (1996) ‘Small business service firms and the 1990s recession in the United Kingdom’, Local Economy, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp.221–236.
[12] Cambridge Dictionary (2019) https://dictionary.cambridge. org/ dictionary/english/dowry (accessed 19 July 2019).
[13] CARLA. (2019) [online] http://carla.umn.edu/ culture/definitions. html (accessed 6 September 2019).
[14] Celep, A. Brenner, S.B. and Williams, R.M. (2016) ‘Internal culture, external impact: how a changemaking culture positions foundations to achieve transformational change’, The Foundation Review, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp.116–129.
[15] Chand, S. (1997) ‘Ethnic conflict, income inequality and growth in independent Fiji’,State, Society and Governance in Melanesia, Discussion Paper[online] http://bellschool.anu.edu.au/sites/default/ files/publications/attachments /2015-12 /1997_06_chand%5B1 %5 D_0.pdf (accessed 16 July 2019).
[16] Chen, Y.S. (2017) ‘Social networking practice of Viennese coffeehouse culture and intangible heritage tourism’, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp.186–207.
[17] Chiang, F. (2005) ‘A critical examination of Hofstede’s thesis and its application to internationalreward management’, International Journal Human Resource Management, Vol. 16, pp.1545–1563.
[18] Claros, A.L. andPerotti, V. (2014) ‘Does culture matter for development?’ Working Paper, World Bank Group. [online]http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/104741468325132310/pdf/WPS7092.pdf. (accessed 18 August 2019).
[19] Collect, C. and Dalton, R. (2017) ‘Cultural change in the Asian Pacific: introduction to the special issue on changing political cultures’, Asian Journal of Comparative Politics, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.109–111.
[20] Constitution of India.[online] https://www.india.gov.in/my-government/constitution-india(accessed 18 September 2019).
[21] COP23 Fiji UN Climate Change Conference Bonn (2018)https://cop23.com.fj/fiji-and-the-pacific/(accessed 19 December 2018).
[22] Dalmia, S. and Lawrence, G.P. (2005) ‘Theinstitution of dowry in India: why it continues to prevail’, The Journal of Developing Areas, Vol.38 No.2, pp.7–93.
[23] David, R.J., Sine, W.D. and Serra, C. K. (2017) Organizational Institutionalism, 2nd ed., SAGE Publication,London.
[24] Deccan Herald. (2015) Rural areas see a middle-class rise, New Delhi, July 3, 2015, DHNS: 1:39 IST. https://www.deccanherald. com/content/487357/rural-areas-see-middle-class.html (accessed 29 January 2019).
[25] Delina, G. and Raya, R.P. (2016) ‘Dilemma of work-life balance in dual-career couples – a studyfrom the Indian perspective’, International Journal of Indian Culture and BusinessManagement, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.1–27.
[26] Dimitrova, Y.(2019) ‘Corporate culture change management’, Economic Alternatives, No. 2, pp.296–312.
[27] Drishti (2019) Reservation in India, Last updated on July 24, 2019. https://www.drishtiias.com /to-the-points/Paper2/ reservation-in-india (accessed 17 February 2019).
[28] Dwyer, S., Mesak, H. and Hsu, M. (2005) ‘An exploratory examination of the influence of nationalculture on cross-national product diffusion’, Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 13,pp.1–28.
[29] Eck, D.L. (2002) A New Religious America: How a “Christian Country” Has Become the World’s Most Religiously Diverse Nation. Harper, SanFrancisco.
[30] Edlund, L. (2006) ‘The price of marriage: net vs. gross flows and the South Asian dowry debate’,Journal of the European Economic Association, Vol.4 No.2, pp.542–551.
[31] Flanigan, S.F. (2000) [online] https://scholarblogs.emory.edu/ postcolonialstudies/2014/06/20/arranged-marriages matchmakers-and-dowries-in-india/ (accessed 16 October 2019).
[32] Fraenkel, J. (2007) ‘The Fiji coup of December 2006: who, what, where and why?’, inFrom Election to Coup in Fiji: The 2006 campaign and its aftermath, ANU Press, Australia, pp.420–449.
[33] Ghimire, A. and Samuels, F. (2014) Change and continuity in social norms and practices around marriage and education in Nepal [online] Country report, Overseas Development Institute,London.https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9181.pdf. (accessed 16Oct. 2019).
[34] Ghosh, K. (2015) ‘Teaching and developing leadership in business schools: a multilevel evaluative approach in Indian context’, International. Journal Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp.178–192.
[35] Gillion, K.L. (1958) A History of Indian Immigration and Settlement in Fiji. Unpublished PhD thesis, Australian National University, Australia.
[36] Ginsburgh, V.A. and Throsby, D. (2006) Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, 1st ed., Uk
[37] Girmit.Org (n.d.) [online] http://girmit.org/. (accessed 7 November 2018).
[38] Girmit.Org. (n.d.) [online] http://girmit.org/?page_id=926. (accessed 11 December 2018).
[39] Glancey, K., Greig, M. and Pettigrew, M. (1998) ‘Entrepreneurial dynamics in small businessservice firm’, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, Vol. 4 No. 3,pp.249–268.
[40] Govt. of India, (2013-2014) National Commission for Backward Classes. [online] Annual report, Trikoot-1, Bhikaiji Cama Place, New Delhi. http://www.ncbc.nic.in/Writereaddata/AR%202013-14 %20- %20Pandey635705829394221982.pdf.(accessed 28 January 2020)
[41] Gounder, N. (May 2016). The legacy of the girmitiya in Fiji.[online] https:// asiapacificreport.nz/ 2016 /05/ 19 /neelash-gounder-the-legacy-of-the-girmitiya-in-fiji/. (accessed 13 December 2018).
[42] Graf, C.V. (2014) ‘Twice migrants’ relationship to their ancestral homeland: The case of Indo-Fijians and India’, The Journal of Pacific Studies, Vol. 27, No.2, pp.177–203.
[43] OECD(2005). Local economic and employment development (LEED) Culture and Local Development [online] https://books.google.com.fj/books?id=rojVAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA27&lpg=PA27&d (accessed 15 January 2020).
[44] Groeschl, S. and Doherty, L. (2000) ‘Conceptualising culture’,Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 12-17.
[45] Guiso, L., Paola S., and Luigi Z. (2006). ‘Does culture affect economic outcomes?’,Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol.20, pp.23–48.
[46] Heitzman, J. (2012). India: A Country Study. US Library of Congress, USA.
[47] Herskovits, M.J. (1969) Cultural Anthropology, New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH.
[48] Indra Sawhney v. Union of India, 1992, 1992 Supp 2 SCR 454. [online] https://www.india.gov.in/my-government / constitution-india. (accessed 26 July 2019).
[49] International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database estimate, (2019) [online] https://ilostat.ilo.org/resources/lfs-resources/ (accessed 28 January 2020)
[50] Johnson, J.P. and Lenartowicz, T. (1998) ‘Culture, freedom and economic growth: do culturalvalues explain economic growth?’, Journal of World Business, Vol. 33, pp.332–355.
[51] Kalman, B. (2009) India: The Culture, 3rd ed., Crabtree Publishing Company, Canada.
[52] Kaur, G. and Kaur, M. (2016) ‘The study of components of culture: values, norms, material objects, language and culture change’, International Journal of Science Technology and Management, Vol. 5 No. 12.
[53] Kelly, J. (1988). ‘From Holi to Diwali in Fiji: an essay on ritual and history’, Man New Series,Vol. 23 No. 1, pp.40–55.
[54] Khanna, M. and Karandikar, M. (2013) ‘Impact of relational collectivism on impulse buying for others’, The International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp.589–604.
[55] Kirby, K. and Jones-Evans, T. (1997) ‘Small technology-based professional consultancy services in the United Kingdom’, The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 17, No.1, pp. 155-172.
[56] Kishwar, M. (1989) ‘Continuing the dowry debate’,Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24 No. 49 [online], http://www.jstor.org/stable/4395689(accessed 26 August 2019).
[57] Lal, B. (2000) Chalo Jahaji: A Journey through Indenture in Fiji, ANU E Press, Australia. https://press-files.anu.edu.au/ downloads/ press/p212781/pdf/book.pdf (accessed 9 November 2018).
[58] Lanati, M. and Venturini, A. (2018) ‘Cultural change and the migration choice’, IZA – Institute of Labor Economics, pp.1–42. [online] http://ftp.iza.org/dp11415.pdf. (accessed 19 January 2020).
[59] Lee, S.M. and Peterson, S.J. (2000) ‘Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness’, Journal of World Business, Vol. 35, pp.401–416.
[60] Madhani, P.M. (2010) Resource Based View (RBV) of Competitive Advantage: An Overview, pp.3-22, Icfai University Press, Hyderabad, India, 2009, SSRN [online] https://ssrn.com/abstract=1 578704. (accessed 23 January 2020).
[61] Madsen, S.R. (2015)‘Why do we need more women leaders in higher education?’ HERS Research Brief, No. 1. [online] http://hersnet.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2015/07/HERS-Research-Brief-No.-1-Susan-Madsen-.pdf. (accessed 23 January 2020).
[62] Martin, J. (2006) ‘“That’s the way we do things around here”: An overview of organizational culture’, Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, Vol.7 No.1[online] http://southernlibrarianship.icaap.org/content/v07n01/martin_m01.htm. (accessed 22 January 2020).
[63] Maxweber, (1930) The Protestant ethic and sprit of capitalism, Routledge Classics, London
[64] Meyerson, D. (2001) Tempered Radicals: How People Use Difference to Inspire Change at Work, Harvard Business School Press, Cambridge, MA.
[65] Michael, E.W.V. and Grossmann, I. (2017) ‘Cultural change: the how and the why’, Association of Psychological Science,pp.1–17 [online] https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617699971(accessed 21 January 2020).
[66] Michael, W. (2014). Culture, politics, and development, Policy Research Working Paper 6939. The World Bank, Washington DC. [online]https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/womensempowermentindiabriefs.pdf. (accessed 13 June 2019).
[67] Micklin, M. (1966) ‘The Hindu joint family: the norms and the numbers’,Pacific Affairs,Vol. 39, Nos. 3–4 [online] https://www.academia.edu/998241/The_Hindu_joint_family_The_norms_and_the_numbers (accessed 20 September 2019).
[68] Ministry of Personnel, P.G. & Pensions Department of Personnel & Training, Government of India. (2010) Office memorandum [online]http://documents.doptcirculars.nic.in/D2/D02adm/36011_6_2010-Estt.(Res).pdf(accessed 21 January 2020).
[69] Misir, P. (2016) Speech on Girmitiyas [online] https: // www.unifiji.ac.fj / wp-content/uploads / 2018/02 / fiji-girmitiyas-revised-1.pdf (accessed 21 January 2020).
[70] Moag, R.F. (1978) ‘Vernacular education in Fiji’, South Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 6 No. 2 [online] DOI:10.1080/03112137800602051978. (accessed 23 September 2019).
[71] Mohanty, M. (2017) ‘Fiji kava: production, trade, role and challenges’, The Journal of Pacific Studies, Vol.37 No.1, pp.5–30.
[72] Munday, A. (2018) ‘5 Practices to create a culture of innovation’ Corporate Elearning [online] 28 May, https:// elearningindustry.com/ create-a-culture-of-innovation-5-practices. (accessed 20 September 2011).
[73] Muthusami v. Muthusami, 33 Mad 342.Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. [online] http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_And_You/migrations.aspx
[74] Naidu, V.(2013). Fiji: the challenges and opportunities of diversity [online]1-44. Minority Rights Group International 54 Commercial Street, London, United Kingdom. https:// www. refworld.o rg/pdfid/525fbfda4.pdf.
[75] Naidu, V. (2017). ‘From Indian coolies to Fijians: culture and identity changes among Indo- Fijians’, Fijian Studies, Vol. 15 No. 1[online] http://fijianstudies.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/15-1-Naidu.pdf. (Accessed 19 September 2018).
[76] Nayyar, D. (2011) ‘Discrimination and justice: beyond affirmative action’, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 46 No. 42 [online] https: // www.epw.in / journal / 2011 / 42 / special-articles / discrimination- and- justice- beyond- affirmative- action. html. (accessed 21 January 2020).
[77] NCBC. (2012–2013).National Commission for Backward Class, Annual Report.[online] Trikoot-I Bhikaiji Cama Place, New Delhi, India.http://www.ncbc.nic.in/Writereaddata/AR%202012-13%20Pandey635705824205955927.pdf.(accessed 21 Oct. 2019).
[78] Norton, R. (2004) Fiji Country Study,[online]. 15 January 2004 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08ca840f0b652dd00147c/InformalRemittanceFijiStudy.pdf.(accessed 19Dec.2019).
[79] O’Leonard, K. (2010) The Corporate Learning Facebook: Statistics, Benchmarks, and Analysis of the US Corporate Training
Market, Bersin & Associates, Oakland, CA.
[80] Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.(2001) [online].http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_And_You/religion.aspx (accessed 3 November 2019).
[81] Ooi, C.S. (2007) ‘Un-packing packaged cultures: Chinese-ness in international business’, EastAsia, Vol. 24, pp.111–128.
[82] Palriwala, R. (1989) ‘Reaffirming the anti-dowry struggle’,Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24 No. 17, [online] https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4394737.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A3b25e11587ff76509ee36cffc94f9deb(accessed 23 September 2019).
[83] Pandey, N. and Srivastava, V. (2013) ‘Factors affecting tourists’ intention to purchase: a study of Indian domestic tourists’, International. Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol. 6 No. 3, pp.314–329.
[84] Pathak, A.A. and Pandey, S. (2013) ‘European vs. Indian ITES employees: a comparison of their work attitude and behavior’, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business, Management, Vol. 6No. 2, pp.248–325.
[85] Pearsonhighered.com. (n.d.). ‘Culture and culture change’, [online]. https://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/samplechapter/ 0/2/0/5/0205711200.pdf. (accessed 13 October 2019).
[86] Prakasa, R. (1982) Marriage, the family and women in India. Printox, South Asia Books.
[87] Qu, C. Dallen J. T. and Zhang, C. (2019) ‘Does tourism erode or prosper culture? Evidence from the Tibetan ethnic area of Sichuan Province, China’, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change,Vol.17, No.4, pp. 526-543, DOI: 10.1080/14766825.2019.1600867.\
[88] Rai, S. (2016) ‘The struggles, aspirations, achievements and legacy of the Girmityas’,The Indian Diaspora [online] http:// girmit.org/?page_id=869(accessed 13 October 2019).
[89] Indra Sawhney Etc. Vs Union of India and OthersAIR 1993 SC 477.
[90] Refugee Review Tribunal Australia. (2009). [online] https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4f1419b82.pdf. (accessed 7 April 2019).
[91] Reserve Bank of Fiji. (n.d.). ‘Fiji and international trade’ [online] https://www.rbf.gov.fj/getattachment/4eae6402-4241-4194-9686-4493173a98f9/Fiji-and-International-Trade-25-July,-Fiji-Times. (accessed 17 February 2019).
[92] Rosen, S. J. (2019) ‘The Reincarnation(s) of Jaya and Vijaya: A Journey through the Yugas Reprinted from: Religions’, in Jeffery D. Long, (Eds.), Perspectives on ReincarnationHindu, Christian, and Scientific pp.122-128. MDPI, Switzerland.
[93] Rössel, J. and Otte, G. (2010) ‘Culture’,in German Data Forum (RatSWD) (Ed.). Building on Progress, Verlag Barbara Budrich, Budrich UniPress,pp.1153–1172.
[94] Shodhganga.inflibnet. (n.d.) [online] https://shodhganga.inflibnet. ac.in/ bitstream/10603/97349/9/09_chapter%204.pdf. (accessed 9 May 2019).
[95] Singh, D.P. (2010) ‘Indian cultural values and ethos explained for the decision makers’, International Journalof IndianCulture and Business Management, Vol. 3 No. 5, pp.592–606.
[96] Singh, K. (2007) ‘The limited relevance of culture to strategy’, Asia Pacific Journal ofManagement, Vol. 24, pp.421–428.
[97] Singh, N. and Krishnan, V.R. (2007) ‘Transformational leadership in India: developing andvalidating a new scale using grounded theory approach’, International Journalof Cross Cultural Management,Vol. 7, pp.219–236.
[98] Singh, R. T. (2012) ‘Fiji’s coup culture 1987-2006: A media perspective’,Pacific Journalism Review, Vol. 18 No.2,pp.167–181.
[99] Sonawat, R. (2001) ‘Understandingfamilies in India: areflection of societal changes’, Mai-Ago, Vol.17 No.2, pp.177–186.
[100] Sondhi, N. and Chawla, D. (2014) ‘A cluster analysis approach to grouping Indian womenprofessionals’, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol. 8No. 1, pp.35–53.
[101] Sotomayor, S.,Claudia Gil Arroyo, C. G., and Carla Barbieri, C. (2019) ‘Tradition and modernity side-by-side: experiential tourism among Quechua communities,’Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, Vol17, No4, pp.449–466.
[102] Statistics Times. (2019) [online] http://statisticstimes.com/demographics/population-of-indian-states.php. (accessed 11 October 2018).
[103] Striking women org. (n.d.) [online] https://www.striking-women.org/module/map-major-south-asian-migration-flows/indentured-labour-south-asia-1834-1917. (accessed 3 October 2018).
[104] Suraj Bunsi Koer v. Sheo Prasad (1880) ILR 5 Cal 148.
[105] Sushil Kumar Sharma v. Union of India and others JT 2005(6), 266.
[106] The National Archives. (n.d.). [online] https:// www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/india/forced.htm. (accessed on 12 October 2019).
[107] The World Bank, IBRD.IDA. (2019) International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database estimate [online] http://datatopics.worldbank.org/gender/country/fiji. (accessed 1 March 2019).
[108] Trnka, S. (2008). State of Suffering: Political Violence and Community Survival in Fiji, Cornell University Press, United States.
[109] UNESDOC Digital Library (2010). The power of culture for development, [online] http://www.lacult.unesco.org/lacult_en/docc/ The_Power_of_Culture_Development.pdf (accessed 22 July 2019).
[110] Zakia, A. et al (2016) ‘Islam in Fiji: continuity, adaptation and change during the indenture and post-indenture periods’,in Indentured Muslims in the Diaspora; Identity and Belonging of Minority Groups in Plural Societies, Manohar, New Delhi, pp.275–300.
[111] Zhang, R.and Weng, L. (2017) ‘Not all cultural values are created equal: cultural change in China reexamined through Google books’, International Journal of Psychology[online] https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12436(accessed 21 January 2020).
Received : 01 November2020
Accepted : 17 February 2021
Published : 23 February 2021
DOI: 10.30726/ijmrss/v8.i1.2021.81004

Download “Reconcnciliation of Cultural in Fiji” Reconcnciliation-of-Cultural-in-Fiji.pdf – Downloaded 94 times – 638 KB